The Complete Beginner’s Guide to High Intensity Resistance Training (HIT): What it is, how it compares to other forms of exercise and the results you can expect to get (part 1) – HITUNI

HITUNI has a well researched, succinct 3-parter about what HIT is and how to use it.  I’m so glad they wrote it.  I really hate the more “marketing” side of the training business, and these guys do my work for me.  If you are new to the concept of HIT, this is a great start.  And when you’re done, give me a call.  I’ll get you started.

Here’s a snippet:

HIT vs Cardio HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training)

Sometimes high intensity interval training gets called HIT too and this can cause confusion!

High intensity interval training is a form of cardiovascular (CV) exercise involving sprint intervals- traditionally that type of exercise was always known as High Intensity Interval Training or HIIT. At some point one of the I’s got dropped though and it is now often referred to as HIT, too!

CV focused high intensity interval training (HIIT) is like the cousin of High Intensity Resistance Training (HIT), and is an effective form of applying traditional CV exercise, such as stationary cycling, for CV fitness benefits. Whilst sprint intervals are excellent at providing CV fitness they do lack when it comes to providing a balanced strengthening stimulus for the musculature of the whole body.

The same is not however true in reverse: although High Intensity (Resistance) Training uses workouts that consist of exercises that are traditionally considered strength training exercises, the effect of applying these exercises in a highly intense manner produces similar CV health benefits as the more traditional CV modalities (e.g. stationary cycling).

In many ways HIT (resistance training!) is the ultimate all-in-one workout protocol as it stimulates hypertrophy, strength increases and CV benefits together. When training to momentary muscular failure (as per HIT) the acute metabolic and molecular responses do not differ from traditional endurance training and myocardial function is maintained or even enhanced.

Here’s a mega-table comparing HIT with all these exercise modalities. Scroll right and left to see all of them. Do you have any more you’d like to see here? Suggest in the comments below.

For the full article, go here.

Part 2 is The Complete Beginner’s Guide to High Intensity Resistance Training (HIT): full-body workouts, types of exercise, technique and momentary muscular failure (part 2)

Part 3 is The Complete Beginner’s Guide to High Intensity Resistance Training (HIT): Recommended routine, order of exercises, tempo, time under load, rest between exercises and frequency of training (part 3)

And if that’s not enough, I recommend Body by Science: A Research Based Program to Get the Results You Want in 12 Minutes a Week by John Little and Doug McGuff.

Of that’s still not enough, you are not a newbie, and you need deeper material  email me.

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Effect of Low vs. High Intensity Exercise Training on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction — PubMed

PubMed

Tenório TRS, Balagopal PB, Andersen LB, Ritti-Dias RM, Hill JO, Lofrano-Prado MC, Prado WL.

PURPOSE:

To investigate the effects of a low vs. high intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity.

METHODS:

Sixty-two adolescents with obesity (age: 15±14 years, BMI: 34.87±4.22 kg.m-2) were randomized to receive either a high intensity training (HIT, n=31) or a low intensity training (LIT, n=31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Leptin, total and subtype leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were obtained at baseline and after 24 weeks.

RESULTS:

HIT reduced neutrophils (from 4.4 ± 1.9 to 3.6 ± 1.3 μL-1 x103; p= 0.01) and monocytes (from 7.2 ± 2.5 to 5.2 ± 1.8 μL-1 x102; p< 0.01), but LIT increased neutrophils (from 4.5 ± 1.7 to 5.2 ± 3.3 μL-1 x103; p= 0.01). While TNF-α increased in LIT (from 13.3 (7.5) to 17.7 (10.8) pg.mL-1; p= 0.01), it decreased in HIT (from 12.4 (7.5) to 11.3 (6.2) pg.mL-1; p= 0.01). No changes in leucocyte counts, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance were observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both HIT and LIT improved the inflammatory profile. The study, however, indicated that the number of biomarkers and the magnitude of changes were higher in the HIT compared to LIT.

 
 

An hour per week at the gym lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome — ScienceDaily

time to workoutLess than one hour of resistance exercise training per week lowers the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight, high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar). This was shown by a study involving more than 7,000 participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) in the USA. The beneficial effects of resistance exercise were independent from the amount of aerobic exercise, such as running or cycling. An international team of researchers, led by Esmée Bakker of Radboudumc published these findings on June 13 on the website of Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Continued at Source: An hour per week at the gym lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome — ScienceDaily

Why intensity is not a bad word: Optimizing health status at any age.

Author information

 CutAbstract

Age-related declines in health and function make locomotion increasingly difficult leading to reductions in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), skeletal muscle size and strength, and increased adiposity. Exercise is an important strategy to attenuate loss of function through the life cycle. Despite claims to the contrary, high-intensity exercise is important for the prevention of obesity and sarcopenia with advancing age. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to present literature supporting the contention that low volume, high-intensity aerobic and/or resistance training can slow sarcopenia, sustain ease of movement, stimulate NEAT, and attenuate the accretion of fat mass.

KEYWORDS:

Energy expenditure; Exercise economy; High-intensity exercise; Physical activity; Resistance training; Sarcopenia

Higher muscle mass associated with lower mortality risk in people with heart disease

ScienceDaily.com
CutDate:  April 22, 2016
Source:  University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences
Summary:
Cardiovascular disease patients who have high muscle mass and low fat mass have a lower mortality risk than those with other body compositions, researchers have found. The findings also suggest that regardless of a person’s level of fat mass, a higher level of muscle mass helps reduce the risk of death.

Full Article

Researchers from the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA found that cardiovascular disease patients who have high muscle mass and low fat mass have a lower mortality risk than those with other body compositions. The findings also suggest that regardless of a person’s level of fat mass, a higher level of muscle mass helps reduce the risk of death.

This findings indicate the importance of assessing body composition as a way to help predict cardiovascular and total mortality in people with cardiovascular disease.

Background

In previous studies on the relationship between body composition and mortality, the researchers used a simpler clinical measure of body composition called the bio electrical impedance scale. They noted a possible protective effect of muscle mass on both mortality and metabolism in healthy people. The new study extends the findings from the earlier research using dual X-ray absorptiometry, a more rigorous method of measuring body composition.

The researchers examined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004, of 6,451 participants who had prevalent cardiovascular disease. Each subject was categorized into one of four groups:

  • low muscle/low fat mass
  • low muscle/high fat mass
  • high muscle/low fat mass
  • high muscle/high fat mass

Those with high muscle mass and low fat mass had the lowest risk of cardiovascular and total mortality.

Impact

Because people with higher muscle mass were more likely to have a high body mass index, the findings could explain the “obesity paradox,” which holds that people with a higher BMI have lower mortality levels.

The findings also highlight the importance of maintaining muscle mass, rather than focusing on weight loss, in order to prolong life, even in people who have a higher cardiovascular risk. The authors suggest that clinicians encourage their patients to participate in resistance exercises as a part of healthy lifestyle changes, rather than focusing primarily on, and monitoring, weight loss.

Authors

Dr. Preethi Srikanthan, associate clinical professor of medicine in the division of endocrinology at the David Geffen School of Medicine, is the study’s primary investigator. The study’s co-authors are Dr. Tamara Horwich, health sciences clinical professor of medicine, division of cardiology, and Dr. Chi-hong Tseng, adjunct associate professor of medicine in the division of general internal medicine and health services research.

The study was published in the American Journal of Cardiology.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences. The original item was written by Enrique Rivero. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Preethi Srikanthan, Tamara B. Horwich, Chi Hong Tseng. Relation of Muscle Mass and Fat Mass to Cardiovascular Disease Mortality. The American Journal of Cardiology, 2016; 117 (8): 1355 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.01.033

Strength training helps older adults live longer — ScienceDaily

ScienceDaily.comSenior Woman In Gym
Date:  April 20, 2016
Source:  Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Summary:
Older adults who met twice-weekly strength training guidelines had lower odds of dying, a new analysis concludes. The study is the first to demonstrate the association in a large, nationally representative sample over an extended time period, particularly in an older population.

Full Story

Older adults who met twice-weekly strength training guidelines had lower odds of dying in a new analysis by researchers at Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Columbia University. The study is the first to demonstrate the association in a large, nationally representative sample over an extended time period, particularly in an older population.

Many studies have previously found that older adults who are physically active have better quality of life and a lower risk of mortality. Regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including preventing early death, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and some cancers.

But although the health rewards of physical activity and aerobic exercise are well established, less data has been collected on strength training.

Over the past decade, researchers have begun to demonstrate benefits of strength training on strength, muscle mass and physical function, as well as improvements in chronic conditions such as diabetes, osteoporosis, low back pain and obesity. Small studies have observed that greater amounts of muscle strength are associated with lower risks of death.

Read more at Strength training helps older adults live longer — ScienceDaily

Training to prevent strain injury? Contraction mode matters

Or Why It’s Important To Accentuate The Negative.Training
Date:  April 1, 2016
Source:  American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)
Summary:
Hamstring injuries are the most common noncontact injury in elite sport. Despite increased research efforts, these injury rates continue to rise. Recent evidence has shown that short muscle fiber lengths can increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite soccer players. This study aimed to see how fascicle lengths change following training interventions of either lengthening or shortening contractions.

Hamstring injuries are the most common noncontact injury in elite sport. Despite increased research efforts, these injury rates continue to rise. Recent evidence has shown that short muscle fiber lengths can increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite soccer players. This study aimed to see how fascicle lengths change following training interventions of either lengthening or shortening contractions.

Twenty-eight healthy males trained three times per week for six weeks, followed by a reassessment after four weeks off. Those who trained with lengthening contractions saw a rapid (<14 days) increase in fascicle length, with a loss of any gains following the four weeks off at the end. Those who trained with shortening contractions saw a rapid (<14 days) reduction in fascicle length, with no changes following the four week break.

These findings have implications for injury prevention and rehabilitation practices which should consider the contraction mode and the effect of de-training. An example from elite soccer is prescription of a lengthening training intervention (e.g. Nordic Hamstring Exercise) to an athlete.

This works great, unless the athlete stops doing the exercises in-season or goes on holiday at the end of the season.

Then, all of the hard work is for nothing, with significant reductions in muscle fiber length and potential increases in injury risk.

HIT Body Weight Training

Not up for personal one-on-one sessions with Jean?  No worries.  Our HIT Body Weight Training Classes are 45 minutes of energetic high intensity training in a small group setting using nothing but your body as the mechanism for change.

Think that’s not long enough to change your body?  The principles of HIT have been repeatedly proven by exercise scientists over the last several decades.  You CAN make positive changes to your strength and physique with the knowledgeable application of those principles.

HIT has become so synonymous with quickly and safely improving strength that it is now frequently an advertising hook by big box gyms whose “instructors” are untrained fly-by-night temporary employees.

Our classes are taught by Jean Kottemann, a trainer in New Orleans for with over 17 years of experience training in the HIT method.

Benefits of HIT include:

  • Increased strength and muscular function
  • Increased cardiovascular fitness (yes, it’s “aerobic”)
  • Improved flexibility and/or range of motion
  • Improved sleep
  • Improved immune function
  • Takes less time than traditional exercise methods
  • Look and feel better

 

 

 

Intensive exercise with intervals ‘more effective’

Date:  January 19, 2016
Source:  University of Leicester
Summary:
Short bursts of intensive exercise provide a more “time-efficient” and realistic way of preventing, delaying and managing Type 2 diabetes and also losing weight, a study has found. Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are linked, with over 80 per cent of people with the condition classed as overweight or obese — diet and physical activity interventions are the cornerstones for management of both conditions.
FULL STORY

Short bursts of intensive exercise provide a more “time-efficient” and realistic way of preventing, delaying and managing Type 2 diabetes and also losing weight, a study has found.

Small amounts of vigorous activity in quick successions are more “effective” compared to longer forms of exercise optimising the body’s ability to use and store blood sugar, the research by the University of Leicester and the NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit (BRU) has found.

The paper ‘The effects of high-intensity interval training on glucose regulation and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis’ has been published in the journal Obesity Reviews.

Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are linked, with over 80 per cent of people with the condition classed as overweight or obese — diet and physical activity interventions are the cornerstones for management of both conditions.

The effects of exercise on Type 2 diabetes and improving the body’s ability to use insulin to absorb blood sugar are well established, but its impact on weight regulation is more controversial.

The guidelines for weight loss suggest that 200 to 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity per week are required for long-term reductions, but previous research found that only five per cent of people in some industrialised countries achieve this amount. Recently, however, effects of physical activity on health in the absence of weight loss, have emerged.

In response, the study has proposed high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as an alternative: “time-efficient exercise intervention that may bring about similar benefits to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise.”

Researcher Charlotte Jelleyman said: “This study involved a meta-analysis of experimental research, allowing us to pull together evidence and establish cause and effect. We have demonstrated that HIIT conveys benefits to cardiometabolic health which in the cases of insulin resistance and aerobic fitness may be superior to the effect of traditional continuous training.

“HIIT may therefore be suitable as an alternative to continuous exercise training in the promotion of metabolic health and weight loss, particularly in those with Type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome. However, given the identified limitations, more research is needed to determine both behavioural responses and clinical benefits over the longer term.”

The NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity BRU is a national centre of excellence in diet, lifestyle and physical activity based in Leicester and Loughborough. It harnesses the power of experimental science to explore and develop ways to help prevent and treat chronic disease.

High Intensity Training improves recovery after knee replacement surgery

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016 Jan 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Leg Extension

Copyright: tonobalaguer / 123RF Stock Photo

High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

PURPOSE:

The benefits of preoperative training programmes compared with alternative treatment are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a high-intensity preoperative resistance training programme in patients waiting for total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

METHODS:

Forty-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3) and finally 3 months after TKA (T4). The intervention group completed an 8-week training programme 3 days per week prior to surgery.

RESULTS:

Isometric knee flexion, isometric hip abduction, VAS, WOMAC, ROM extension and flexion and all the functional assessments were greater for the intervention group at T2, T3 and T4, whereas isometric knee extension was greater for this group at T2 and T4 compared with control.

CONCLUSION:

The present study supports the use of preoperative training in end-stage OA patients to improve early postoperative outcomes. High-intensity strength training during the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up recovery after TKA.